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Summer Research Fellowship Programme of India's Science Academies

The Review on Enzyme Mechanism and Kinetics, Protein Expression and Purification and Biosynthesis of Biomolecules

Likhitha S

Department of Chemistry, Manglore University, Mangalagangotri Konaje

Professor.E.N.Prabhakaran

Department of Organic Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru

Abstract

Enzymes are biological catalysts that significantly speed up the rate of virtually all the chemical reactions that takes place within cells. They are Polypeptide Macromolecule that catalyse or speed up biochemical reactions. Some enzymes help to break large molecules into smaller pieces that are more easily absorbed by the body. Based on a literature survey, enzymes are also important practical tools in chemical engineering, food technology, and agriculture. The latter part of the twentieth century, thousands of enzymes have been purified, their structures elucidated, and their mechanisms explained. Production of proteins is essential for many applications in both basic research and also in medicine, where the recombinant proteins are used as pharmaceuticals. Protein expression and purification technology help to modify protein stability, activity or function or to facilitate protein purification by affinity tag fusion. Proteins are the important constituents of tissue and cells of the body. They form the important component of the muscle and other tissues and vital body fluids like blood. The proteins in the form of enzymes and hormones are concerned with a wide range of vital metabolic processes in the body. This review summarizes procedures involved in Protein Expression and purification, selection of suitable expression system and protein purification technique. Biomolecules such as RNA, DNA and protein are emerging as powerful chemical tools for the synthesis of inorganic nanoparticles. Fatty acids are essential components of biological membranes, important for the maintenance of cellular structure, especially in organisms with a complex life cycle. Biomolecules are important for the functioning of the living organism. Several macromolecules such as proteins, carbohydrate, nucleic acid enzymes and small molecules like amino acids, vitamins, fatty acid etc., fall under the category of biomolecules. The four major types of biomolecules are carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins.

Keywords: Enzymes, Proteins, Biomolecules, Biosynthesis

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