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Summer Research Fellowship Programme of India's Science Academies

A comparative study of phylogenetic groups and NDM-1 gene prevalence between UTI and faecal Escherichia coli isolates

Nerusu Ramya Durga Vineela

Dr B. R. Ambedkar Center for Biomedical Research, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007, India

Dr. Manisha Yadav

Dr B. R. Ambedkar Center for Biomedical Research, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007, India

Abstract

Escherichia coli is a Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms. Escherichia coli encompass an enormous population of bacteria that exhibit a very high degree of both genetic and phenotypic diversity. Phylogenetic analyses have shown that E. coli strains fall into four main phylogenetic groups (A, B1, B2, and D) (13, 14) and that virulent extra-intestinal strains belong mainly to group B2 and, to a lesser extent, to group D (15, 16, 17, 18), whereas most commensal strains belong to group A. Phylogenetic analysis also describes the inter relationship between the different strains. It can be able to depict the evolutionary relationship and their analysis between different groups or different strains. The re-emergence of infectious diseases poses a serious threat to public health worldwide. This resistance arises through Genetic Mutation and acquisition of resistance genes. Carbapenems are often used as a last resort for treating serious infections attributable to multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria because these drugs are stable even to extended-spectrum and AmpC ß-lactamases. The major clinical problems arise are related to metallo-beta-lactamases (MBL). The rapidity with which new types of antibiotic resistance can disseminate globally following their initial emergence or recognition is exemplified by the novel carbapenemase New Delhi metallo-b-lactamase (NDM). The spread of NDM has a complex epidemiology involving the spread of a variety of species of NDM-positive bacteria. The spread of NDM illustrates that antibiotic resistance is a public health problem. We intend to identify the phylogenetic groups and NDM gene among the E.coli isolates from two different sources i) faeces ii) urine. The phylogenetic groups were identified using the quadruplex method and NDM gene is identified by PCR. We intend to look into the differences of NDM gene prevalence and the phylogroups.

Keywords: E.coli, phylogenetic group, NDM Metallo beta lactamases

 Abbreviations

NAME ABBREVIATIONS
UTIs Urinary Tract Infections
UPEC Uro pathogenic E.coli
EHEC Enterohemorrhagic E.coli
NDM New Delhi Metallo β-Lactamases
MLST Multi Locus Sequence Typing
VIM Verona integron-encoded Metallo β- Lactamase
IMP Imipenemases
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