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Summer Research Fellowship Programme of India's Science Academies

Fabrication of PLA based foot bone model using Additive Manufacturing

Murugananthan K

Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kamaraj College of Engineering and Technology, Virudhunagar 625 701.

Dr. Anupam Agrawal

Associate Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Ropar 140 001

Abstract

Instructions to be followed by the Summer Research Fellows (SRF):The research work emphasis on providing applied advantages to the biomedical industry, particularly in surgical planning, customized implants, simulation, training, producing models of prosthetics using Additive Manufacturing (AM) techniques. Three-dimensional complex structures can be printed using this kind of manufacturing without wastage of any material. This can be achieved by selecting optimized process parameters, biocompatible materials with possible structures and coating on the optimum selected implant. Almost all the outputs of the Computerized Tomography (CT), magnetic resonance (MR), digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and Ultrasonography (US) can be stored as Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) file format. By using 3D slicing software DICOM files format
are converted to 3D CAD data, which will facilitate the researches further in processing of the images. The 3D CAD data is needed to slice the required implant then it is converted to .stl file. Finally, .stl file is imported to Rapid Prototyping (RP) machines. The three-dimensional products are produced in layer-by-layer pattern by laying down the successive layers of material till the product is created. To avoid the wastage of material with conventional manufacturing method, RP is latest advanced manufacturing technology used instead of subtractive manufacturing method. One more main advantage is there is no need of tool and die, work holding devices, jigs and fixtures. Titanium is nontoxic, non-carcinogenic and generally biocompatible with human tissues and bones. Excellent corrosion resistance, high strength, stiffness, toughness, low density and biocompatibility coupled with strength make titanium and its alloys
useful in and biomaterial applications.

Keywords: Additive Manufacturing, Computerized Tomography data, biocompatible, Additive Manufacturing

Additive manufacturing (AM) creates the physical model by construction of succeeding layers using the input material. Each succeeding layer is attached to the preceding layer to form the physical AM model. Medical industry requires the error-free exact anatomy of the patient for diagnosis, surgical planning, surgical guides, implants . AM processes take the information from a computer-aided design (CAD) file that is later converted to a stereolithography (STL) file. 3D laser scan technology can give quick results with high resolution, and, based on this advantage, Reverse Engineering (RE) and Rapid Prototyping ( RP ) can be integrated for medical applications. This chapter describes two methods for reconstructing 3D RP models from the laser-scanned data. Current applications will be illustrated for these physical medical images along with research efforts into generating more accurate surface data. AM is an emerging technology in surgery with respect to reconstructive bone surgery. Such treatment protocols often require customized implants to fulfill the functional and aesthetic requirements. Currently, such customized implants are being manufactured using AM technology. The CT images in Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) file format is used to develop a 3D CAD model of customized implant. The implant is designed to maintain the symmetry of required bone from right to left. The designed implant model is manufactured by Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) techniques with a biocompatible material. The patient mandible prototype model was manufactured by AM process, which is helpful for pre-planning of surgical procedures. For these pre-planning surgical procedures, a perfect fit obtained during surgery.

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