# Study of farm machineries used in fodder production and its utilization

P Naveen Kumar

B.E Agricultural and Irrigation Engineering, College of Engineering Guindy, Anna University, Chennai-25.

Guided by:

Dr. Chandra Shekhar Sahay

Principal Scientist, Farm Machinery and Post Harvesting Technology Division, Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute, Jhansi-284003.

## Abstract

The Indian Council of Agriculture Research has one of its institutes viz. Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute in Jhansi, UP which is engaged in conducting research on grassland and fodder issues in the country. The engineering division of this institute is mandated to develop different kinds of products and machinery suitable for grassland and fodder development. As an intern in this division, I got the opportunity to study different machines used in fodder cultivation and utilization. The study started with laser guided land levelling machine and its operational principal were described. Among the sowing machines, tractor operated seed cum fertilizer drill, tractor operated zero till drill, tractor operated raised bed planter, berseem seed drill were studied and there working principle along with schematic drawing was noted. Among different kind of fodder harvester, single row fodder harvester, engine operated fodder harvester and reaper binder were studied and their principle of working was described. Among other machines studied during this period were tractor operated movable baler, tractor operated field baler, electrically operated feed pelleting machine, tractor operated boom sprayer, power weeder, manually operated feed block making machine, hydraulic operated feed block making machine and thresher with urea treatment system. In the laboratory 3D modelling of one manual operated rice seeder, tractor operated tyne type cultivator, single row fodder harvester and manually operated feed block making machine was done using 3D modelling software. In the farm workshop dismantle and assembly of the single acting hydraulic cylinder of an earth mover was explained and hands on training was given. Learning tractor driving is also one of the part of my internship. I studied some concepts related to design of machineries such as seed drill, mould board plough, disc harrow and evaluating its cost. Information was gathered on the sensors used in agriculture especially farm machineries. This study made me aware of the various issues faced in fodder production related to farm machineries. It has helped me to better understand the farm machineries and their utilization in fodder production.​

Keywords: 3D modelling, Mechanization, Agriculture machines.

## Introduction

Agriculture and allied sector contributed approximately 13.9 per cent of India's GDP (at constant 2004-05 prices) during 2013-14. However, it went up to 18 per cent based on 2011-12 prices). The 18 per cent comes by addition of share of crops (11.4 per cent, maximum), Livestock (3.9 per cent), Forestry and Logging (1.4 per cent) and fishing (0.9 per cent minimum) [Central Statistical Office, Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of India, 2015]. Livestock production is backbone of Indian agriculture and source of employment and ultimate livelihood for more than 70 per cent population in rural areas. Livestock contributes about 15-20 per cent to the household income of farmers, which has been steadily increasing during the recent years. India's livestock sector is one of the largest in the world. Livestock population is around 529.7 million and is expected to grow at the rate of 0.55 per cent in the coming years. It has 56.7 per cent of world's buffaloes, 12.5 per cent cattle, 20.4 per cent small ruminants, 2.4 per cent camel, 1.4 per cent equine, 1.5 per cent pigs and 3.1 per cent poultry (Vision 2050, IGFRI Jhansi).

Cattle and buffaloes require substantial quantity of feed and fodder for economic management. Proper feeding of livestock available in the country requires about 1300 million tonnes of feed whereas availability is only 478 million tonnes. In the diverse climate of India, a variety of forage crops are used but area under cultivated fodder is stagnating to around 8.5 million ha (4.6 per cent of gross cropped area; 184.8 million ha), mainly on account of pressure of human population for food and other cash crops (Vision 2020, IGFRI Jhansi).

The average yield of milk and meat in our animals is 20-60 per cent lower than the global average. Further, their production potential is not realized fully because of constraints related to feeding, breeding, health and management. Deficiency of feed and fodder accounts for half of the total loss, followed by the problems of breeding and reproduction (21.1%), diseases (17.9%) and management (10.5%). There is urgent need to meet the demand of increasing number of livestock and also enhance their productivity for which availability of feed resources have to be increased.

Livestock production is primarily a small farm production system characterized by low input-output (Ref: Basic Animal Husbandry statistics, DAHD&F, GoI, 2013). Proper feeding of livestock requires meeting the deficit of feed from various approaches. The main approach being increasing productivity of fodder from the same land for which timely application of inputs and timely completion of operations are required.

Cultivation and utilization of fodder involve operation similar to any other crop growing practice like preparation of seedbed, sowing of crop, weeding, harvesting etc. In case of fodder, it becomes important to perform initial processing of harvested crop before feeding to animals. Fodder production, its processing and utilization is labour intensive, time consuming and high energy intensive operation. Optimum production and utilization of forage crops demand minimum, critical and timely operation. Delay in fodder production operation often causes loss of moisture content and deterioration of fodder quality rapidly. There are some specific mechanization requirements of fodder crops. Numbers of cultivated fodder crops are multi-cut and produce volume of green and dry matter during the time of harvest. Their production dependson timely harvest of material to allow growth for next cut. Large volume and mass handling requires suitable machinery for operation. Accordingly machinery and their size is required in Indian condition to fulfil their needs.

This report deals with machines and equipment and specific situation where they are useful in production of fodder crops. Use of these machines, their features of operation, capacity and salient point about a particular machine are discussed operation wise.

## Mould board plough

Mould board plough

## Components of a mouldboard plough

A tractor drawn mouldboard plough consists of a) plough bottom b) beam or standard c) main frame and d) hitch frame

Plough bottom

The part of the plough which actually cuts, lifts, pulverizes and through the soil out of the furrow. It is composed of those parts necessary for the rigid structure required to cut, lift, turn, and invert the soil. Parts of the mouldboard plough bottom are a) Share b) Mould board c) Land side d) Frog and e) Tail piece. Share, landside, mouldboard are bolted to the frog which is an irregular piece of cast iron.

Share: It is that part of the plough bottom which penetrates into the soil and makes a horizontal cut below the surface. It penetrates into the soil and makes a horizontal cut below the soil surface. It is a sharp, well-polished and pointed component. Different portions of the share are called by different names such as

Share point: It is the forward end of the cutting edge which actually penetrates into the soil

Cutting edge: It is the front edge of the share which makes horizontal cut in the soil. It is bevelled to some distance

Wing of share: It is the outer end of the cutting edge of the share. It supports the plough bottom

Gunnel: It is the vertical face of the share which slides along the furrow wall. It takes the side thrust of the soil and supports the plough bottom against the furrow wall

Cleavage edge: It is the edge of the share which forms joint between mould board and share on the frog

Wing bearing: It is the level portion of the wing of the share, providing a bearing for the outer corner of the plough bottom

Material of share: The shares are made of chilled cast iron or steel. The steel mainly contains about 0.70 to 0.80% carbon and about 0.5 to 0.8 % manganese besides other minor elements.

Share is of different types such as i) Slip share ii) Slip nose share iii) Shin share and iv) Bar point share.

i) Slip share: It is one piece share with curved cutting edge, having no additional part. It is a common type of share, mostly used by the farmers. It is simple in design, but it has got the disadvantage that the entire share has to be replaced if it is worn out due to constant use.

ii) Slip nose share: It is a share in which the point of share is provided by a small detachable piece. It has the advantage that the share point can be replaced as and when required. If the point is worn out, it can be changed with a new nose without replacing the entire share, effecting considerable economy.

iii) Shin share: It is the share having a shin as an additional part. It is similar to the slip share with the difference that an extension is provided to it by the side of the mouldboard.

iv) Bar point share: It is the share in which the point of the share is provided by an adjustable and replaceable iron bar. This bar serves the purpose of share point and landside of the plough.

Mould board: It is the curved part which lifts, turns, and pulverizes the soil slice. It is that part of the plough which receives the furrow slice from the share. If lifts, turns and breaks the furrow slice. To suit different soil conditions and crop requirements, mouldboard has been designed in different shapes. The mouldboard is of following types:

General purpose: It is a mouldboard having medium curvature lying between stubble and sod types. The mouldboard is fairly long with a gradual twist, the surface being slightly convex. The sloping of the surface is gradual. It turns a well -defined furrow slice and pulverizes the soil thoroughly.

Stubble type: It is short but broader mouldboard with a relatively abrupt curvature which lifts, breaks and turns the furrow slice. .This is best suited to work in stubble soil that is under cultivation for years together. Stubble soil is that soil in which stubble of the plants from the previous crop is still left on the land at the time of ploughing. This type of mouldboard is not suitable for lands with full of grasses.

Sod or Breaker type: It is a long mould board with gentle curvature which lifts and inverts the unbroken furrow slice. It turns over thickly covered soil. This is very useful where complete inversion of soil is required by the farmer. This type has been designed for used in sod soils (soil with much of grass).

Slat type: It is a mouldboard whose surface is made of slats placed along the length of the mouldboard, so that there are gaps between the slats. This type of mouldboard is often used, where the soil is sticky, because the solid mouldboard does not scour well in sticky soils.

Land side: It is the flat plate which presses against and transmits lateral thrust of the plough bottom to the furrow wall. It helps to resist the side pressure exerted by the furrow slice on the mouldboard. It also helps in stabilizing the plough while in operations. Land side is fastened to the frog with the help of plough bolts. The rear bottom end of the land side is known as heel which rubs against the furrow sole.

Frog: It is the part to which share, land side and mouldboard are attached. Frog is that part of the plough bottom to which the other components of the plough bottom are attached. It is an irregular piece of metal. It is made of cast iron for cast iron ploughs or it may be welded steel for steel ploughs.

Tail piece: It is an adjustable extension, which can be fastened to the rear of the mould board to help in turning the furrow slice.

## Types of mouldboard ploughs

1) Fixed type (one way) mouldboard plough

Fixed type (one way) mouldboard plough

2) Two-way or Reversible plough

It is a mouldboard plough which turns furrow slice to the right or left side of direction of travel as required. Such ploughs have two sets of opposed bottoms. In such a plough, all furrows can be turned towards the same side of the field by using one bottom for one direction of travel and the other bottom on the return trip. Two sets of bottom are so mounted that they can be raised or lowered independently or rotated along an axis. Two way ploughs have the advantage that they neither upset the slope of the land nor leave dead furrows or back furrows in the middle of the field.

## Cultivators

It is an implement for inter cultivation with laterally adjustable tines or discs to work between crop rows. The cultivator stirs the soil, and breaks the clods. The tines fitted on the frame of the cultivator comb the soil deeply in the field. A cultivator performs functions intermediate between those of plough and the harrow. Destruction of weeds is the primary function of a cultivator. The following are a few important functions performed by a cultivator.

1. Inter culture the fields

2. Destroy the weeds in the field

3. Aerate the soil for proper growth of crops

4. Conserve moisture by preparing mulch on the surface

5. To sow seeds when it is provided with sowing attachments

6. To prevent surface evaporation and encourage rapid infiltration of rain water into the soil

The cultivators can be classified into

1) Disc cultivator

2) Rotary cultivator

3) Tine cultivator

Tractor Drawn Cultivator

Trailed type cultivator

It consists of a main frame which carries a number of cross members to which tines are fitted. At the forward end of the cultivator, there is a hitch arrangement for hitching purpose. A pair of wheels are provided in the cultivator. The height of the hitch is adjusted so that main frame remains horizontal over a range of depth setting. The tines in each row are spaced widely to allow free passage of the soil and trash around them. The tines in subsequent rows are staggered so that the implement can cover the entire width nicely.

Mounted Cultivator

Tractors fitted with hydraulic lift operate the mounted type cultivators. A rectangular frame of angle iron is mounted on three point hydraulic linkage of the tractor. The cross members carry the tines in two staggered lines. Depending upon the type of soil and crop, shovels are chosen for use on the cultivators. Usually tractor drawn cultivators are of two types, depending upon the flexibility and rigidity of tines

Cultivator with rigid tynes.

A tine hinged to the frame and loaded with a spring so that it swings back when an obstacle is encountered, is called spring loaded line. Each of the tine of this type of cultivator is provided with two heavy coil springs, pre-tensioned to ensure minimum movement except when an obstacle is encountered. The springs operate, when the points strike roots or large stones by allowing the tines to ride over the obstruction, thus preventing damage. On passing over the obstruction, the tines are automatically reset and work continues without interruption. The tines are made of high carbon steel and are held in proper alignment on the main frame members. This type of cultivator is particularly recommended for soils which are embedded with stones or stumps.

Cultivator with rigid tines

Rigid tines of the cultivators are those tines which do not deflect during the work in the field. The tynes are bolted between angle braces, fastened to the main bars by sturdy clamps and bolts. Spacing of the tines is changed simply by slackening the bolts and sliding the braces to the desired position. Since rigid tines are mounted on the front and rear tool bars, the spacing between the tynes can be easily adjusted without getting the tines choked with stubbles of the previous crop or weed growth. A pair of gauge wheel is used for controlling the depth of operation.

## Rotary Tiller

The rotary cultivator is widely considered to be the most important tool as it provides fine degree of pulverization enabling the necessary rapid and intimate mixing of soil besides reduction in traction demanded by the tractor driving wheels due to the ability of the soil working blades to provide some forward thrust to the cultivating outfit. The functional components include tynes, rotor, transmission system, universal joint, levelling board, shield, depth control arrangement, clutch and three point linkage. Rotary tiller is directly mounted to the tractor with the help of three point linkage. The power is transmitted from the tractor PTO (Power Take Off) shaft to a bevel gear box mounted on the top of the unit, through telescopic shaft and universal joint. From the bevel gear box the drive is further transmitted to a power shaft, chain and sprocket transmission system to the rotor. The tynes are fixed to the rotor and the rotor with tynes revolves in the same direction as the tractor wheels. The number of tynes varies from 28 - 54. A levelling board is attached to the rear side of the unit for levelling the tilled soil. A depth control lever with depth wheel provided on either side of the unit ensures proper depth control. The following types of blades are used with the rotor.

i. L type blade - Works well in trashy conditions, they are more effective in cutting weeds and they do not pulverize the soil much.

ii. Twisted blade - Suitable for deep tillage in relatively clean ground, but clogging and wrapping of trashes on the tynes and shafts.

iii. Straight blade - Employed on mulchers designed mainly for secondary tillage.

The benefits of the rotary tiller are effective pulverization of soil ensures good plant growth, stubble and roots are completely cut and mixed with the soil and proper ground levelling after the operation and also it gives negative thrust while operation.

## Laser Guided Land Leveller

Laser guided land leveller is used in levelling the land at a desired slope using a guided laser beam throughout the field. The slope may be in one direction or two direction. Uneven soil surface has a major impact on the germination and yield of crops due to non-uniform water distribution and soil moisture. Hence land levelling is most precursor practice to overcome this problem. The land levelling saves water by distributing it uniformly throughout the field. It saves irrigation water up to 50% Thereby reducing the fuel and electricity used in irrigation and also saves labour cost, reduce farm operating time by 10% and precious natural resource water.

Laser Guided Land Leveller

Components of laser guided land leveller

• Scrapper

It is used to level the land. It is attached to the tractor through the single point hitch.

• Laser transmitter

The laser transmitter mounts on a tripod, which allows the laser beam to sweep above the field. It emits the laser beam in all direction.

The laser receiver is a multi-directional receiver that detects the position of the laser reference plane and transmits the signal to the electronic control system.

• Electronic control system

It has 2 laser sensor that senses and process the signal from the laser receiver. These signals are to indicate the drag scrapper position relative to the field grade.

• Electronic controlled two way valve

Hydraulic systemIt has two hydraulic pipes where one pipe is act as pressure pipe and another pipe is act as drain or relief pipe.One hydraulic cylinder where two pipes are connected to raise and lower the scrapper.

• Single point hitch
• Pneumatic wheels

Operation of the laser guided land leveller

The laser transmitter is mounted on a tripod and it is kept on the ground. The desired slope is then fixed in the laser transmitter. Then the transmitter emits the laser beam in all direction. The implement with the laser receiver is attached to the tractor through the single point hitch. The receiver in the pole is adjusted accordingly to coincide with the transmitter signal. It is a multi-directional signal receiver. Then the tractor will pull the implement in the undulated field. In the implement there is an electronic control system which has two laser sensor and a control unit. The implement also has a hydraulic system which was connected to the tractor hydraulic system and the electronic control system. In that hydraulic system it has two hydraulic pipes, one pipe act as pressure pipe and another pipe act as drain or relief pipe and vice versa. When the field has some depression or elevation the transmitting signal from the transmitter to the receiver has miss matched and it may get raise above or lower than the fixed receiver position. Then the receiver sends signal to the electronic control system. The control system receives it and process the signal and accordingly it adjusts the level of the scrapper. That is one of the laser sensor detects the miss matching of signal and it controls the hydraulic two way valve. That valve kept one hydraulic pipe as pressure pipe and another has drain or relief pipe and vice versa.

The field capacity of this implement is 0.1 to 0.2 ha/h and it depends on the slope of the field to be levelled.

Principle of operation of laser guided land leveller

Case 1 (laser beam is above the receiver i.e. field is having depression)

In this case when the land has some depression or ditch then the laser beam is above the receiver. The receiver sends signals to the electronic control system where one of the laser sensor receives the signal and process it. Then it controls the two way valve which operates one hydraulic pipe has pressure pipe and another pipe has drain pipe. As a result of this the piston in the hydraulic moves and thereby it rises the implement (filling of the depression by cutting of heap of soil takes place).

Case 2 (laser beam is coincide with the receiver i.e. field is smooth and it has no undulation or with slight undulations)

In this case the laser beam coincide with the receiver, then it maintains the same slope by keeping the piston of the hydraulic cylinder in the same position.

Case 3 (laser beam is below the receiver i.e. field is having heap of soil or up projection)

In this case when the field has some elevation, heap or up projection of soil then the laser beam is below the receiver, then the receiver sends signals to the electronic control system where one of the laser sensor receives the signal and process it. Then it controls the two way valve which operates one hydraulic pipe has pressure pipe and another pipe has drain pipe. As a result of this the piston in the hydraulic moves and thereby it lowers the implement (cutting of heap takes place).

Specification of the laser guided land leveller
 Type tractor operated type Width of the scrapper 2.1 m Height of the scrapper 0.6 m Overall length 3.65 m Overall height 2.43 m Ground clearance 0.2m Laser source < 5 mw, 635 nm Operating diameter > 800 m Grade range -10 to + 15 ( dual axes) Remote control type Full 2-way communication Power requirement 60 hp Effective field capacity 0.1 to 0.2 ha/h

## Mixed Cropping Enabled Seed cum Fertilizer Drill

Mixed cropping enabled seed cum fertilizer drill is used in sowing different seeds in different lines in one field. It used in the cultivation of different crops like maize, barley, sorghum etc. In a single operation it can place the different seed simultaneously without mixing of the seeds. It is used in mixed cropping and intercropping seed placement in fodder production. Moreover in a single operation we can place different seeds simultaneously with fertilizers.

Mixed Cropping Enabled Seed cum Fertilizer Drill

Components of machine

• Ground wheel

It rotates and transmits the power to the shafts that are carrying metering mechanisms for seed and fertilizer.

• Fertilizer and seed hopper

These are the boxes that contains seeds and fertilizers.

• Fertilizer rate control lever

It controls the fertilizer rate.

• Seed Rate control lever

It is used to control the seed rate.

• Chain Sprocket system

It is the power transmitting system of the machine which transits the power from the ground wheel to the metering device.

• Furrow opener

Shoe type furrow opener is used which opens the soil for sowing of seed.

• Three point hitch

It is provided to attach implement to the tractor

• Seed metering device (Fluted roller type)

Fluted roller type seed metering mechanism is used.

• Fertilizer metering device ( notch type )

It is used for the control of flow of fertilizer rate.

• Seed and fertilizer tubes

It provides passage for the transport of the seed and fertilizer from the hopper to the boot.

• Frame

It holds the all other components of the machine. It gives stability to the machine.

Operation of the mixed cropping enabled seed cum fertilizer drill

The implement is attached to the tractor through three point linkage. When the tractor moves the ground wheel rotates and transmits power to the rotating shaft drives metering mechanism for seed and fertilizer metering. There is control lever to control the opening of the seed hopper which controls the seed rate and fertilizer rate. The furrow openers are used to open the soil and places the fertilizer and seed which are coming from the hopper. In the boot part comprises of two openings where the first opening places the fertilizer initially and then the second opening places the seed.

Specification of the mixed cropping enabled seed cum fertilizer drill
 Type Tractor operated Attachment Three Point Linkage Seed and fertilizer hopper Trapezoidal shape Seed metering device Fluted roller Fertilizer metering device notch type Row to row spacing adjustable Crop to crop spacing adjustable No. of furrow openers 9 No of furrow openers in first row 4 No. of furrow openers in second row 5 Field Capacity (45 hp tractor drawn at 1.8 m/s) 0.3-0.4 ha/h Depth control wheels control depth Furrow opener shoe type tine Effective width of the machine 1.8 m

## Zero Till Fertilizer cum Seed Drill

With seed cum fertilizer drill the seeds are sown along the basal placement of the fertilizer over a well prepared seed bed. For this, the field after the harvest of the previous crop is prepared by 3-4 cultivation operations which takes enormous time, labour and energy besides causing delay in the sowing of the next crop with increase in the cost of cultivation. To overcome this, the tractor operated zero till seed-cum-fertilizer drill is designed. This machine is used to sow the seed directly into the uncultivable field just after the harvesting of the previous crop.

Zero till fertilizer cum seed drill

Components of the machine

• Main Frame
• Diamond tip of furrow / slit opener
• Seed and fertilizer boxes
• Seed metering device
• Fertilizer metering device
• Power transmission unit
• Depth control side wheels
• Hitch points
• Iron/ wooden platform or stand

The tractor operated zero till fertilizer cum seed drill is used to sow the seed directly in the uncultivated land after the harvesting of the previous crop by eliminating the tillage operations. It has nine/ eleven row unit consisting of fluted roller for metering of seeds and vertical rotors over adjustable openings/ variable hole-mesh type for metering of fertilizer. The ground drive wheel supply the power through the sprocket and chain for metering of seed and fertilizer. The furrow openers are inverted ‘T’ type spaced at 200mm row spacing. The machine is operated by a tractor of 35 hp or above. It is similar to the conventional seed cum fertilizer drill except the furrow opener of inverted ‘T’ shape which creates inverted ‘T’ type furrow groove with reduced surface exposure and thereby helps to maintain the in-groove humidity in a reasonable wet soil for better germination and emergency of seedlings.

The seed flowing rate for wheat is 60 kg/ha. The average effective field capacity of the machine is 0.35 ha/h with a field efficiency of 80%.

Specifications of Tractor operated zero-till seed-cum-fertilizer drill
 Type of drive Ground wheel through sprocket chain arrangement Side drive Single Type of furrow opener Inverted T-Type Cutting portion of furrow opener 8mm thick high carbon steel bit welded Rake angle 20.0 degrees Relief / clearance angle 5.0 degrees Width of machine 11 to 13 tynes Tractor hp required 35-45 Machine size ( LxWxH), mm 1800 x 600 x 1100 Size of frame (LxWxT), mm 65 x 65 x 5 Seed metering device Flutted feed roller type Fertilizer metering device Forced feed gravity type with adjustable hole and vertical rotor agitator Ground wheel Front mounted floating type with lugs on wheel periphery. Diameter 380mm Width 105mm No. of lugs 10 Height of lug 30mm

Diameter

Width

No. of lugs

Height of lug

Width

## RAISED BED PLANTER

Raised bed planter is a machine that makes raised beds in the prepared field and does sowing of seed on the raised beds. In fodder, it is mainly used for sorghum, oats, and legumes. A single machine can do multi operations such as raising beds and sowing seeds. Thus it is useful in minimizing the farmer work and time consuming of the process and also it reduces the work load of the farmer.

Raised Bed Planter

Components of machine

• Ground wheel

It rotates and transmits the power to the shafts that are carrying metering mechanism for seed and fertilizer. Here the wheel with lugs are used. Lugs are provided to increase the traction and avoid slipping

• Fertilizer and seed hopper

These are the boxes that contains seeds and fertilizers.

• Fertilizer rate control lever

It controls the fertilizer rate.

• Seed Rate control lever

It is used to control the seed rate.

• Chain Sprocket system

It is the power transmitting system of the machine which transits the power from the ground wheel to the metering device.

• Furrow opener

Shoe type furrow opener is used which opens the soil and forms furrow and ridges.

• Three point hitch

It is provided to attachment implement to the tractor

• Inclined plate for small, medium and large seed

It is used for sowing different seeds having different size and shape.

• Seed metering device

Fluted roller type seed metering mechanism is used .We can easily change the flow of seed rate by changing the exposure of fluted roller.

• Fertilizer metering device ( notch type )

It is used for the control of flow of fertilizer rate.

• Seed and fertilizer tubes

It provides passage for transport of the seed and fertilizer from the hopper to the boot.

• Frame

It holds the all other components of the machine. It gives stability to the machine.

Operation of the machine

The implement is attached to the tractor through three point linkage. When the tractor moves the power wheel rotates and transmit its power to the seed and fertilizer metering devices. There is control lever to control the opening of the seed hopper which controls the seed rate which has been already calibrated. Similarly a fertilizer control lever is for controlling the flow of fertilizer. Initially the furrow opener forms the raised beds. It forms two beds with 60 cm width and three furrows with 30 cm width. Behind the bund former the tine is placed where the fertilizer is placed first and then a layer of soil and then the seed is placed. The seed is feed in the seed hoper which is in trapezoidal shape. Additionally an inclined plate is provided for the placement of seed according to their size. Thus it sends the seed from the hopper to tine through seed tubes. The tines are placed in the gap between the two furrow openers. In First operation the implement makes two raised beds and three furrows. Then in the second operation it reshaping the beds and places the seeds. The effective width of coverage of this implement is 1.8m. Field capacity of this machine is 0.3-0.4 ha/h and it is drawn by a 45 hp tractor at a forward speed of 1.8 m/s.

Specification for raised bed planter
 Make Tractor operated raised bed planter Attachment Three Point Linkage Seed and fertilizer hopper Trapezoidal shape Seed metering device Fluted roller, inclined plate for different size seeds Fertilizer metering device notch type Row to row spacing adjustable Crop to crop spacing adjustable No. of beds formed in one 2 beds with 60 cm width operation No. of furrow forms in one operation 3 furrow with 30 cm width Field Capacity (45 hp tractor drawn at 1.8m/s) 0.3-0.4 ha/h Depth control depth control wheels Furrow opener shoe type tine Furrow opener for bed Chisel in front combined with mould formation board.

## Engine Operated Power Weeder

Engine operated power weeder is used for the weeding purpose in line sown crops. It uproots the weeds which are present in between the two lines of crop. It is a trailing type power weeder. The operator has to walk behind the weeder. It is used in line sowing fodder crops, particularly in wide spaced grasses. Power weeder has higher capacity and lower cost of operation than manual weeding and performs operation in less time. It has the advantage of loosening the soil, conservation of moisture by mulching and aeration of the soil.

Engine Operated Power weeder

Components of Power Weeder

• Air cooled diesel engin
• Clutch
• Throttle lever
• Gear box

It has one set of forward gear and it helps in the forward motion of the machine.

• Iron wheel

Iron wheel with lugs type is used in the machine. Where the lugs are equally spaced and it helps to increase the traction and avoid slips in the wet field condition.

• Power transmission system
• Tyne type weeder

Sweep type tyne is used as weeder.

• Handle bar

It is used for steering purpose.

Operation of the power weeder

The power weeder has only one forward gear and thus only one forward speed. The forward speed of the power weeder is 2.5 km/h. After the engagement of the gear the weeder starts moving forward.

Weeder tyne are kept in between the two line of crops when it moves ahead it uproots the weeds.

This power weeder can used only when the line to line spacing is minimum of 25 cm. If the line to line spacing is less than 15 cm then it would cause damage to the crops and even sometimes it may uproot the crops also. The operator can walk behind the weeder. The direction are manually controlled by the operator itself. The line to line spacing can be adjusted. The spacing between iron wheels can be adjusted according to the field conditions. Three sweep type tyne are used for weeding and it can be easily removed.

Specification of the power weeder
 Type Engine operated, operator walk behind the wheels type Engine Air cooled diesel engine Tyne sweep type tyne weeder No of sweep tynes 3 Width of the tyne 70 mm Distance between two tyne adjustable Engine Power 5.9 kw/ 8hp Gear only one forward gear Forward speed 2.5 km/h Wheels Iron wheels with lugs type Distance between wheels adjustable Width of the wheel 120 mm Effective field capacity 0.2 ha/h Steering manually

## Engine operated Reaper Binder

Engine operated Reaper binder is a machine that harvests the crop and binds it in a bundle simultaneously in one operation. This machine ensures harvesting and also recovery of straw. This is mainly used in wheat, paddy, oats, barley and similar crops.

Reaper binder

Components of Engine operated Reaper Binder

The reaper binder is classified into three major sections

• Prime Mower Unit
• Diesel engine
• Fuel tank
• Oil filter
• Exhaust pipe
• Pulley for starting the engine
• Other components of the engine
• Transmission system
• Clutch lever
• Gear lever
• Handle bar

Left side of the handle bar it has

• Clutch
• Throttle level
• Engine stop lever
• Two pneumatic wheel

Two pedals for changing the direction of the wheel below the seat

• Harvesting and binding
• Twine box
• Cutter bar
• Crop gathering unit
• Bundle tying mechanism

Operation of the reaper binder

Start the engine and run it for 5 min in ideal condition. Then engage the PTO lever. Then the Power generated from the engine is transferred to the cutter bar through PTO shaft and the cutter bar starts to reciprocate. Then depress the clutch and put the forward gear. It is always suggested to drive the machine in the first gear when the machine is operated in the field. Where the cutter bar and the PTO shaft are connected through the V belt and four pulleys thus the belt is connected in the pulley as shown in the fig.10. The reaper binder machine has four forward gear and one reverse gear. Thus cutter bar has several cutter blades which has sharp edges and it helpful in cutting the plants. Standard cutter bar having 76.2 mm pitch of knife section. The effective cutter bar width is 1.2 m. The cutting height can be adjusted to 3, 7 and 12 cm. The harvested plants are collected and bundle is made using twine. Height of the bundle is adjusted by the clearance of the cutting height. The size of the bundle can be adjusted by adjusting the corresponding spring provided in the cutter bar. The spring get enlarged when it collects the harvested plant beyond the particular limit. At the end the crop is discharged on the ground in the rear. When the binder system is replaced by cutter bar only then it acts as a fodder harvester. Working capacity of the reaper binder is 0.3-0.4 ha/h.

Belt pulley arrangement
Specification of the reaper binder
 Type Engine operated Engine Air cooled single cylinder, diesel engine Fuel Diesel Power 8 KW/ 10.88hp Combustion chamber capacity 454 ${cm}^{3}$ Injection pressure 200 kg/${cm}^{2}$ Bore 85 mm Stroke 80 mm Alternator 10 amps magneto type Air cleaner oil bath type Wheels pneumatic tyres Front wheel 4.50 x19.00 (4 ply) Back wheel 3.50x8.00 (4 ply) Inflation pressure Front 25 psi Rear 30 psi Clutch hand operated lever on left side handlebarDry typeSingle plateDia 180 mm Brakes Hand operated through cable transmission by two levers on the centre of the handlebar. Gears Hand operated lever on centre of handle bar constant mesh gear with 4 forward gear and one reverse gear. Gear Max. speed (km/h) ${1}^{st}$ 4.5 ${2}^{nd}$ 6 ${3}^{rd}$ 8 ${4}^{th}$ 10.8 $Reverse$ 4.6 PTO shaft Hand operated lever, on the centre of handle bar, conical shaft, 1125 rpm and anticlockwise rotation. RPM low :1150High: 3000

Dry type

Single plate

Dia 180 mm

Dry type

Single plate

Dia 180 mm

## Engine operated fodder harvester

Engine operated fodder harvester is a used to harvest the fodder crops such as sorghum, berseem, etc. It has its own engine for power generation. It minimizes the time and energy involved in the harvesting of the fodder crop.

Fodder Harvester

Components of the machine

The Fodder harvester is classified into three major sections

• Prime Mower Unit
• Diesel engine
• Fuel tank
• Oil filter
• Exhaust pipe
• Pulley for starting the engine
• Other components of the engine
• Transmission system
• Clutch lever
• Gear lever
• Handle bar

Left side of the handle bar it has

• Clutch
• Throttle level
• Engine stop lever
• Two pneumatic wheel

Two pedals for changing the direction of the wheel below the seat

• Harvesting unit
• Cutter bar

Operation of the fodder harvester

Start the engine and run it for 5 minutes in ideal condition. Engage the PTO lever, then the engine power is transmitted to the cutter bar through the PTO shaft, pulleys and V belt mechanism. Then the cutter bar just reciprocating in the horizontal axis. The cutter bar has cutter blades which has sharp edge knifes. Standard cutter bar having 76.2 mm pitch of knife section. The effective cutter bar width is 1.2 m. The cutting height can be adjusted to 3, 7 and 12 cm. Then depress the clutch to engage the gear for moving the machine into the field. The side vertical guide will helpful in prevention of the logging of the crops and also guide the crops towards the cutter blades. Thus the crops are get harvested and discharged into the field. Working capacity of the fodder harvester is 0.4 ha/h at a forward speed of 4 km/h.

Specification of the Fodder harvester
 Type Engine operated Engine Air cooled single cylinder, diesel engine Fuel Diesel Power 8 KW/ 10.88 hp Combustion chamber capacity 454 ${cm}^{3}$ Injection pressure 200 kg/${cm}^{2}$ Bore 85 mm Stroke 80 mm Alternator 10 amps magneto type Air cleaner oil bath type Wheels pneumatic tyres Front wheel 4.50x19.00 (4 ply) Back wheel 3.50x 8.00 (4 ply) Inflation pressure Front 25 psi Rear 30 psi Clutch hand operated lever on left side of handlebarDry typeSingle plateDia 180 mm Brakes Hand operated through cable transmission by two levers on the centre of the handlebar. Gears Hand operated lever on centre of handle bar constant mesh gear with 4 forward gear and one reverse gear. Gear Max.speed (km/h) ${1}^{st}$ 4.5 ${2}^{nd}$ 6 ${3}^{rd}$ 8 ${4}^{th}$ 10.8 $Reverse$ 4.6 PTO shaft Hand operated lever, on the centre of handle bar, conical shaft, 1125 rpm and anticlockwise rotation. RPM low :1150High: 3000

Dry type

Single plate

Dia 180 mm

Single plate

## Single row fodder harvester

Single row fodder harvester is a machine that can harvest, chaff and load fodder in the trolley. A single machine does multiple unit operations of harvesting, chaffing and loading. Hence man power requirement for these operations are reduced. This machine is suitable for all tough stemmed fodder crops.

Single row fodder harvester

Components of the single row fodder harvester

• Three point hitch
• PTO shaft
• Gear box
• Vertical guide

It guides the fodder crop into the chaffing unit.

• Rotating shear drum

Two shear plates are fixed at the bottom of the rotating drum which harvest the crop. Rotating drum guide the crop inside the machine and shear plate cut it from below.

• Chaffing and blower unit

It has 12 chaffing blades and fins for compress the air and chaffed fodder and then it sends it into the outlet blower duct.

• Outlet blow duct

It is the conduction path for the chaffed fodder for discharge out into the trolley. It can be rotate up to 180 degree.

• Outlet vane

It guides the chaffed fodder to discharge exactly into the trolley. The angle of the outlet vane can be adjusted up to 180 degree.

• Hydraulic systemHydraulic pump

The pump gets ON when the machine receives power from the tractor through the PTO shaft.

• Hydraulic oil sump

It act as a reservoir of the hydraulic oil. It has inlet and outlet point (drain point).

• Control lever

The two way hydraulic valve is used to control the direction of flow of oil i.e it makes decision which pipe has to be act as pressure and drain pipe.

• Hydraulic cylinder

Two hydraulic cylinder is used in this machine. One is at the outlet blow duct and another is at the outlet vane. Both cylinders are used for the rotation of the outlet blow duct and vane.

• Hose connections
• Pneumatic wheels

It is used for harvesting depth adjustment and also provides stability to the machine.

Operation of the single row fodder harvester

Single row fodder harvester is attached to the tractor through the three point hitch. It gets power from the tractor through the PTO shaft. The PTO shaft is fitted with the gear box through the bevel gear. There are two rotating drum which are rotating in opposite direction and inwards. At the bottom of the rotating drum shear blades are there, it is used for harvesting the crop. The advantage of shear plate cutting is that there is no frequent break up of shear blades in the field conditions and cutting takes place effectively. After cutting, the crop is guided to chaffing unit that has 12 blades and 12 blower fins to pass the chaffed material into the outlet blow duct. The chaffed material is passed with wind blow and can be guided to any direction with wind for unloading. This requires the field in levelled condition for smooth operation of the machine. It is used for control the depth of harvesting and also provides stability to the machine. There is a hydraulic system for rotating the outlet blower duct and outlet vane. Both can be rotated up to 180°. Two hydraulic cylinders are there one for rotating the outlet duct and another for rotating outlet vane. There is a hydraulic pump which is in ON when the PTO runs. Hydraulic control lever is used to control the position of the hydraulic cylinders. It has a two way valve for directing the hydraulic oil. The output capacity of the machine is 12-18 q/h it depending on the type of the crop.

Specification of the single row fodder harvester
 Operation tractor operated type Width of the operation 60 cm Length of the machine 2.7 m Height of the machine 2.8 Weight of the machine 660 kg Support wheel type pneumatic wheel Hitch 3 point hitch PTO rpm $540±$10 Discharge direction adjusted manually up to 180° Cutting knifes 12 Blowing fins 12 Minimum chaff size 5 mm Field efficiency 52 – 60 % Capacity of the machine depends on the type of crop

## Tractor Operated Boom Sprayer

Weed management is a challenging problem in arid and semi-arid regions. On an average, there is 20-30% reduction in crop yield due to weed infestation. Use of weedicide in pre-emergence state of a crop is more effective and allows the crop to germinate with high vigour. Manual and engine operated sprayer have less coverage capacity and consume more man power to cover unit area of the field. Pre-emergence spray of weedicide is more appropriate in case of fodder crops as weeding is usually ignored after sowing. Hence high capacity sprayer which covers more area in unit time is required. A tractor operated long boom sprayer is useful to serve the purpose well for spraying weedicide in pre-emergence state of fodder crops. The boom sprayer forms very small size of droplets due to high velocity air flow from the blower having the advantage of spraying low volume of weedicide into a coverage area. Uniform coverage over a large area results in reduction of losses of expensive and environmental sensitive chemical.

Tractor operated Boom Sprayer

Components of the Boom Sprayer

• PTO Shaft
• Belt pulley mechanism
• Positive displacement pump

It is the pressurising unit of the machine. The required pressure for spraying is generated from the pump.

• Weedicide tank

Its capacity is about 450 litres.

Spraying unit

Two types of spraying arrangement

• Long boom sprayer
• Spray gun connected to 50m long hose pipe
• Control valves

It is used to control the direction of the flow of the chemical solution.

• Distributing system
• Pipe and hose connections
• Nozzles
• Three point hitch and frame

Operation of the boom sprayer

The boom sprayer is attached to the tractor through the three point hitch. The power is taken from the tractor through the PTO shaft. Then it is transferred to the positive displacement pump through the belt and pulley mechanism. The positive displacement pump is pressurising unit of the machine. It generates the required pressure for appropriate spraying. It has two types of spray arrangements being as

• Long boom sprayer
• Spray gun connected with 50 m long hose pipe

The boom is folded in three folds while transportation to the width of 3.0 m. Pressure from the nozzle of boom sprayer is variable. On high pressure small droplets are formed resulting in low volume of weedicide to cover more area. Along with boom, one sprayer gun is provided that has adjustable nozzle for spraying at short (3-4mm) and long (12-15mm) distance in hollow cone and jet pattern, respectively. The discharge from jet gun varied from 2.4 to 3.6 litre/min at 2.8 kgf/${\mathrm c\mathrm m}^2$pressure. The field capacity from spray was 0.73 ha/h. spray gun is used for spraying on high trees and shrubs, where tractor cannot run through.

Specification of tractor operated boom sprayer
 Source of power Tractor Type of boom Folded from two side Width of boom while operation 12.5 m No of nozzles 20 Type of nozzles Hollow cone Type of spray Hollow cone pattern Tank capacity 400-450 litres Pump Positive displacement pump Pump power rating 2.2 kW/ 3 hp Maximum discharge from pump 36 litre/min Maximum pressure from pump 2.8 Mpa Total weight of the machine with full tank 600 kg Height of nozzles from ground level while operation 1.8 m Overlap between two spray 120 mm from the centre Ground clearance of the tank while operation 750 mm Field capacity 3.125ha/h Field efficiency 54-65%

## Tractor Operated Movable Baler

Tractor operated movable baler is used in densification of the fodder straw, hey and harvested fodder crops. Since fodder straw or hey has low density and occupies considerable space. Hence it has to be compress the fodder material for long term storage and for long distance transport, it is economical to compress the fodder material. There are three different types of balers used in densification of fodder material.

• Stationary baler
• Movable baler
• Automatic baler
Tractor operated movable baler

Components of the movable baler

• Single point hitch
• Flat pulley

This pulley is connected to another flat pulley which is mounted on rear of the tractor. Which transmit the power.

• Gear system

It speed transmitted from the tractor is get reduced and it is converted into reciprocating motion (offset shaft) from rotary motion of the flat pulley through a crank mechanism.

• Offset shaft

It connects the ram and the gear system and also used for the linear motion of the ram.

• Ram

It is compressing or densifying part of the machine.

• Four pneumatic wheels on two axles as following -
• Fixed axle: it is in the rear wheels and it can’t rotate.
• Hinge axle: it is in the front wheels and it can rotate.
• Rectangular section compression chamber

It is used to adjust the compression of the fodder material.

• Hopper

Operation of the movable baler

The movable baler is attached to tractor through the single point hitch. It is toed and taken to the field. After reaching the field the hitch point is opened and the machine is installed on a firm plain ground so that it wheels doesn’t move. Then the machine is operated by connecting the two flat pulleys (one is machine and another one is mounted on the rear of the tractor) through a flat belt. The rotary motion of the flywheel is converted into reciprocating motion through crank and follower mechanism. Several gears are used to reduce the speed from the tractor to ramming section. The gear ratio of the machine is 22:1. If the flat pulley rotates at 540 rpm then it produces 24.5 strokes per minute and for every 2.5 seconds the ram completes one stroke. The ram connected to gear system through the offset power drive shaft. The ram has rectangular cross section of 425x635 mm. length of the bale can be adjustable based on the bailing material, etc. The fodder material is fed into the hopper and it is pushed mechanically by a fork like structure which pushes the feed to come in the path of the ram. When the sufficient length is achieved in the pressing chamber a wooden separation plank is placed before loading of the second phase. In the wooden plank it has two slots through which a GI wire is inserted for tying the bale. The ram forces the bale in the forward direction when more grasses are put inside the compression chamber. It requires minimum 4 persons for loading, tying and unloading.

Specification of the movable baler
 Type Tractor operated Mode of operation Movable and installed at required place Overall length (m) 4.5 Overall width (m) 1.5 Cross section of the Compression chamber (mm) 425x635 Bale density variation by adjusting the compression spring in the outlet Tying system Manual Tying material GI wire Gear ratio 22:1 No. of strokes per minute 24.5 strokes/min Time required to complete one stroke (at 540 rpm) 2.5 seconds Input of material Manual Bale length adjustable (50 100 cm) by putting the plank manually Average density 104.8kg/${m}^{3}$ Compaction ratio 2.62 Man power requirement 4-6 Average no of bales formed/ h 25-30 Average bailing capacity 8-10 quintal/h
Schematic diagram of movable baler (All dimensions are in m)

## Tractor operated automatic baler

Tractor operated automatic baler is used to compress the fodder material and makes bales (densified bundle of fodder material) automatically. In movable baler we need man power to feed the material and in tying operations but in automatic baler collecting and tying of fodder material are done by the machine itself. It is a useful machine for making bales for storage, transport and use during natural calamities. Bales prevent the burning of the fodder straw in the field.

Tractor operated automatic baler

Components of the automatic baler

• PTO shaft

Which transmits the engine power to the machine.

• Hydraulic system

It has two hydraulic cylinders

One cylinder is for keeping the baler in line with the tractor or in offset condition.

Another cylinder is for the height adjustment of the rotary fingers assembly.

• Flywheel
• Collection mechanism
• Finger and reel

It pickups the fodder straws from the field.

• Compression chamber

In the compression chamber the fodder material gets compacted.

• Ram

It is used for compress the fodder material which is connected to the gear system.

• Tying mechanism
• Twine rope
• Rope box
• Frame
• Pneumatic wheels

Operation of automatic baler

Automatic baler has a single point hitch through which it is attached to the tractor. Power generated from the tractor is transmitted through PTO shaft. The machine is connected with double acting control valve of the tractor. This hydraulic system has two hydraulic cylinders. One of the hydraulic cylinder is used for keeping the baler in line with the tractor by engaging a hook on the chassis of baler during the transport. However, while operation, the hook is opened and the baler comes in offset position of the tractor enabling the crop collection from the side of the tractor. Another hydraulic cylinder is used to adjust the height of the finger and reel assembly. The finger and reel are to pick up the fodder material spread in the field. Then the fodder material is moved into the compression chamber. In the compression chamber there is a reciprocating ram which compress the fodder material. There is tying mechanism at the upper side of compression chamber. Twines are used for tying. Two bundles of twine are stored in a box which is in the rear portion of the baler from where twines are passed through knitting mechanism through defined route. The bale thus made are discharge into field from the rear rectangular chute of the machine.

The average density of the bales are 108.6 kg/$m^3$. The average working capacity of the baler is 80 quintal/h.

Specification of the automatic baler

 Type tractor operated Power source tractor, 33.6 kw capacity Overall length 5 m Overall width 3.5 m Mode of operation Movable in field and can be installed in one place. Cross section area of the compression chamber 470 x 370 mm Bale density variation by adjusting the spring thereby varying the cross section area Tying mechanism automatic Tying material plastic rope Input of the material automatic by finger and reel mechanism Bale length variation by varying length of the tying mechanism Average density 108.6 kg/${m}^{3}$ Compaction ratio 2.72 Man power requirement 2 Average number of bale formed 89-90 / h Average bailing capacity 80 quintal/h Cost of machine 8 lakhs

Specification of the automatic baler

Specification of the automatic baler

Schematic diagram of the automatic baler

## Tyre type seed pelleting machine

Tyre type seed pelleting machine is used for pelleting of the tiny and fine fodder seeds. When these seeds are broadcasted in the field, most of the seeds don’t come in contact with the soil and do not germinate. So seed pelleting is done to ensure that the pellet comes in contact with the soil and when the required moisture is met, the seeds inside the pellet starts germinating. Pelleting binds 8-10 seeds together in one ball and ensures germination when moisture is met.

Tyre type seed pelleting machine

Components of machine

• Variable speed electric motor

The speed of the motor can be varied from 30 rpm – 260 rpm

• Power transmission system

Pulley and V belt is used for power transmission

• One pneumatic tyre (old)

Pelleting is done inside this tyre

• Water sprayer
• Main shaft and frame.

Operation of tyre type seed pelleting machine

This tyre type pelleting machine uses an old pneumatic tyre which rotate on its own axis through a supporting shaft and frame. The seed with loose fine soil is fed in to the inner side of the tyre and water is sprinkled over it slowly while rotating the tyre. Thus pellet formation takes place. After the completion of the process, it is taken out from the tyre and dried in a shade. This machine works effectively at 30 rpm.

Specification of the machine
 Type electric motor operated type Electric motor variable speed electric motor, 1hp Power transmission belt and pulley type Required Man power 1 Time required for pellet formation 4 6 minutes in one batch Speed variation 30-260 rpm Effective speed of operation 30 rpm

## Thresher with Urea Treatment System

Urea treatment of straw improves the nutritional quality of the straw by increasing the amount of nitrogen content. Crude protein content of the treated straw generally increased from 3.5–4.0 to 8-9 per cent. However, urea treatment is labour intensive. If the straw is treated with urea at the time of threshing itself, additional cost for operation in treating the straw would be saved. Hence, the thresher with urea treatment system machine is designed in such a way that it does both the threshing and urea treatment operation simultaneously. According to FAO urea made into a solution was sprayed on the straw at the rate of 2kg/ 100

Thresher with Urea Treatment System

The machine is attached with the tractor through single point hitch. The power is transmitted from the tractor to the machine through the PTO shaft. Then the power is transmitted to the flywheel through belt and pulley mechanism. The flywheel, blower and the threshing cylinder all are mounted on a single shaft. When the flywheel rotates all other components which are mounted on the same shaft are also rotate along with the flywheel. At the one end of threshing cylinder blades are there for chaffing the bundles which are get into the threshing unit through the belt conveyor and gear train. When the chaffed plant gets in between the concave and the thresher cylinder, the spikes in the thresher cylinder beaten the plant and the grains are shredded down. Then the grains get down through the slots in the concave. Thus the grains are then passed into the oscillating screen which separates the dust, some fine straws, etc. The clean grains collected at the outlet. The straw in the threshing unit gets into the blower and then the blower blows out the straw.

Components of Thresher with Urea Treatment System

• PTO shaft
• Power Transmission system

Belt and pulley mechanism is used to transmit the power from the PTO to the shaft of the flywheel.

• Flywheel
• Blower unit

It has fins to compress the air and blown out the dry straw.

• Thresher unit

Threshing cylinder with spikesConcave

The clearance between the concave and the threshing cylinder is to be adjusted according to the type of crop feed. The slot openings also select based on the crop.

The cutting blades are attached at the one end of the threshing cylinder. When the cylinder rotates it is also rotating along with the cylinder.

• Oscillating Screen

2 sets of different slot size screens are used.

• Conveying mechanism

Gear train and belt conveyor is used to convey the feed into the threshing unit.

• Spraying Unit
• Spray guns
• Solution Tank
• Pump
• Single point hitch and frame.
• Pneumatic wheels.

Operation of Thresher with Urea Treatment System

For urea treatment it consists of two adjustable spray guns throwing spray towards straw blowing side at the time of threshing. The spray guns are operated by positive displacement pump. The flow rate from the guns is adjustable using pressure regulating gauge. The guns could spray in flat Fan or jet through pattern. The inlet of spray guns was dipped in the tank containing urea solution. The liquid discharge rate was maintained according to the capacity of thresher in such a way that about 3-4% urea is mixed with the straw on weight basis. The treated straw is covered with a polythene sheet on its place and left for at least one month. After month, we can use that treated straw for feeding the animals.

Specification of Thresher with Urea Treatment system
 Suitable crop wheat, oats, etc. No. of spray guns 2 Type of spray gun Adjustable having hollow cone and jet throw spray pattern. Spray gun pump capacity 2.2 kW/ 3 hp Pump power taken from thresher power unit Spray gun position At the straw throwing chute of thresher Discharge from each nozzle 4 6 lit/ min Thresher capacity 10.0 q/h Straw capacity 15 18 q/h Urea treatment of straw 3 4% (weight wise) Quantity of water per 100 litre of water 7.5 kg
Schematic diagram of the thresher with urea treatment system

## Manually Operated Feed Block Making Machine

During the winter green forages are available in the form of tree leaves and grasses are limited in quantity. A large portion both of crop by-products and green forages are lost in the form of residues. Available feed ingredients are often deficient in nutrients. Hence to properly utilize the by-products and the green forages in a proper manner and also to increase the nutrient content of the feed by making feed blocks. Manually operated feed block making machine is used to makes the feed block. It is suitable for the farmer having least no of animals.

Manually operated feed block making machine

Components of the machine

• Outer frame
• Feed box
• Top square plate
• Screw handle

Materials required for making feed block meal

Binding agent

Subabool leaf meal

Salt

Mineral mixture

Mustard cake

Crushed maize

Crop residues (paddy, wheat, millet straws, maize, sorghum, stovers, etc)

Ingredients taken (g/kg)

Crop residues are chaffed into small pieces

Chaffed crop residues - 740

Crushed maize - 100

Mustard cake - 100

Binding agent - 50

Mineral mixture - 6

Common salt - 4

Operation of the machine

Mixed the ingredients thoroughly. Moisture it with water and make into a dough. Feed it into the feed box and place inside the machine. Then rotate the screw which was attached with the top square plate through the handle provided with it. When the screw rotates the square plate moves down. The screw is continuously rotate until the square plate compress the ingredients in the feed box. Then hold at this position for few minutes. After few minutes the feed block is prepared and it was taken out from the seed box and dried in the sun. It can be stored and feed to the animals.

Specification of the machine
 Dimensions of the feed block 23X23X12 cm No of blocks made/h 8-10 blocks Power source manual power Feed block density 400 kg/

## Hydraulic operated feed block making machine

Feed mixture is compressed to certain pressure the binds the ingredients together to form blocks. Application of pressure is done in a closed chamber from one side by a crank-piston drive mechanism having a rectangular piston cross-section. Feed block making machine is operated by an 18.5 kW, 3 phase, electric motor with V- belt and pinion- gear power transmission system. Density of the bales can be adjusted with the help of a spring tension mechanism provided at the outlet point of the machine. A force feed mechanism was provided for the pre compression of the loose herbage in the hopper that increases the hay input inside the compression chamber.

Hydraulically operated Feed block making machine
Specification of feed block making machine
 Power source hydraulic pump operated by electric motor Electric motor capacity 5.6, 3 phase Type Stationary and installed at one place Block making capacity 100 kg/h Feed block density 400 kg/${m}^{3}$ No. of blocks 25 blocks/h Block size 200X200X100 mm Working pressure 6000 psi Hydraulic power pack oil tank, rectangular Oil tank capacity 150 litres

## 3-D Drawing of Manually Operated Rice Planter

In 3D drawing of manually operated rice planter each and every part has to be separately designed and then only assemble it into a whole machine. Before starting the 3D drawing we need the dimension of the each and every part.

Ground Wheel

Starts with the ground wheels, in the design of the ground wheel first following steps are involved.

• Create a circle with the required dimension in any of the plane
• Then use extruded boss feature for extrude it up to the required dimension and make a cylinder
• Then make a sketch of the rim portion on any one planer face on the cylinder
• Make a circular pattern sketch
• Then use the extruded cut feature to cut out the not needed portions
• Make sketch of the tine on the curved portion
• Make the circular pattern sketch
• Extruded it to the required length
• Finally we get the ground wheel
Ground wheel

Shaft

The shaft is to connect the two ground wheels and the all rotating seed drum is also connected to the shaft only. The design of the shaft is so simple

• Sketch a circle with required dimension on any plane
• Then extrude it to the required depth. Then you get a cylinder
• If you want to chamfer or fillet you can do

Rotating Drum

Actually a manually operated rice seeder has many rotating drum. For my practise I did modelling of only one rotating drum.

• Sketch a circle and extrude it into a cylinder
• At any one planar face of the cylinder create another circle and extrude it with an outside draft of 45°
• Then do chamfer about 45° with 5mm depth at the outer most edge
• Use the Hole wizard feature to make holes on the rotating drum
• Then choose the reference plan feature and place it at the centre of the cylinder
• Use the mirror entity feature to mirror the diverged cylinder through the centre reference plan has mirror
• Then we get the rotating Drum
Rotating Drum

Hitch system

The design of the hitch system is created according to your creativity. I designed on my own.

Hitching system

Assembly of the components

Initially take a wheel and shaft first assemble it and then insert the rotating drum and then hitch system, then finally attach the another wheel. It can be done by the following steps:

Go to the assembly feature a new window is opened

There is insert component feature is there use it and get all the designed components into the graphics area

Then do matting one by one as I mentioned above

After assembly the whole machine is displayed in isometric view.

Manually Operated Rice Seeder

## 3-D Drawing of the Spring Type Cultivator

In the 3D drawing of the spring type cultivator, each and every part is designed separately and then assembly is done. Each and every part has to be designed according to the specified dimensions and the designing part is already discussed.

Front view of the cultivator
Isometric view of the cultivator

## 3-D Drawing of the Single Row Fodder Harvester

The working and the different components of this machine is already discussed in the fodder harvesting chapter. The drawing procedure of the components are as same as the manually operated rice seeder.

Front view
Top view
Side view
Isometric view

## 3-D drawing of the manually operated feed block making machine

Screw with Handle
Feed box
Bearing
Outer frame
Isometric view

## Types of Sensor Used In Agriculture

Atmospheric Pressure Sensor

It senses the atmospheric pressure by converting atmospheric pressure into analogue voltage value in a range covering between 0.2V and 4.8V.

Atmospheric Pressure Sensor

Specification

Measurement range - 15 - 115 k Pa

Output signal - 0.2 – 4.8 V (0 - 85°C)

Sensitivity - 48 mV/k Pa

Accuracy - < ± 1.5 V (0 - 85°C)

Typical consumption - 7 mA

Maximum consumption - 10 mA

Supply voltage - 4.85 – 5.35 V

Operation temperature - (-40) – (+ 125) °C

Storage temperature - (-40) – (+ 125) °C

Response time - 20 s

Leaf Wetness Sensor (LWS)

Leaf wetness sensor measure the surface wetness of the leaf. It is based on the resistance provided by the moisture on the surface of the leaf. If the sensor probe is completely immersed in water then it shows a resistance value of about 5 kΩ. It behaves as a resistance of high value in the absence of the condensation in the conductive comb.

Leaf Wetness Sensor (LWS)

Specification

Resistance range - 5 kΩ - > 2MΩ

Output voltage range - 1V – 3.3 V

Length - 3.95 cm

Width -1.95 cm

Humidity Sensor

Humidity sensor is analogue sensor which provides an output voltage is proportional to the relative humidity of the atmosphere.

Humidity Sensor

Specification

Measurement range: 0-100% RH

Output signal: 0.8-3.9 V (25°C)

Accuracy: <±4%RH (a 25ºC, range 30 ~ 80%),

<±6%RH (range 0 ~ 100)

Typical consumption: 0.38mA

Maximum consumption : 0.5mA

Power supply: 5VDC ±5%

Operation temperature : -40 ~ +85ºC

Storage temperature : -55 ~ +125ºC

Response time: <15 seconds

Temperature sensor

Temperature sensor is an analogue sensor which converts the temperature value into a proportional analogue voltage. The range of output voltages is between 100 mV (-40°C) and 1.75 V (125°C), resulting in a variation of 10 mV/°C, with 500 mV of output for 0°C.

Temperature sensor

Specification

Measurement range: 40ºc ~ +125ºc

Output voltage (0ºC): 500mV

Sensitivity: 10mV/ºC

Accuracy: ±2ºC (range 0ºC ~ +70ºC),

±4ºC (range -40 ~ +125ºC)

Typical consumption: 6μA

Maximum consumption: 12μA

Power supply: 2.3 ~ 5.5V

Operation temperature: -40 ~ +125ºC

Storage temperature: -65 ~ 150ºC

Response time: 1.65 seconds (63% of the response for a range from +30 to +125ºC)

Luminosity Sensor

Luminosity sensor is a resistive sensor whose conductivity varies depending on the intensity of light received on its photosensitive part. The measurement of the sensor is carried out through the analog to digital converter. The measurable spectral range (400nm – 700nm) coincides with the human visible spectrum so it can be used to detect light/ darkness in the same way that a human eye would detect it.

Luminosity Sensor

Specification

Resistance in darkness: 20MΩ

Resistance in light (10lux): 5 ~ 20kΩ

Spectral range: 400 ~ 700nm

Operating Temperature: -30ºC ~ +75ºC

Minimum consumption: 0uA approximately

Humidity + Temperature Sensor

Humidity + Temperature sensor incorporates a capacitive sensor for environmental relative humidity and a band gap sensor for environmental temperature in the same package that permit to measure accurately both parameters.

Specification

Power supply: 2.4 ~ 5.5V

Minimum consumption (sleep): 2µW

Consumption (measurement): 3mW

Average consumption: 90µW

Communication: Digital (two wire interface)

Storage temperature: 10 ~ 50ºC (0 ~ 80ºC maximum)

Storage humidity: 20 ~ 60%RH

Temperature:

Measurement range: -40ºC ~ +123.8ºC

Resolution: 0.04ºC (minimum), 0.01ºC (typical)

Accuracy: ±0.4ºC (range 0ºC ~ +70ºC), ±4ºC (range -40 ~ +125ºC)

Repeatability: ±0.1ºC

Response time (minimum): 5 seconds (63% of the response)

Response time (maximum): 30 seconds (63% of the response)

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Humidity:

Measurement range: 0 ~ 100%RH

Resolution: 0.4%RH (minimum), 0.05%RH (typical)

Accuracy: ±1.8%RH

Repeatability: ±0.1%RH

Response time: 8 seconds

Soil Moisture Sensor

Soil Moisture Sensor

Soil moisture sensor is a resistive type sensor consisting of two electrodes highly resistant to corrosion embedded in a granular matrix below a gypsum wafer. The resistance value of the sensor is proportional to the soil water tension, a parameter dependent on moisture that reflects the pressure needed to extract the water from the ground.

Specification

Measurement range: 0 ~ 200cb

Frequency Range: 50 ~ 10000Hz approximately

Diameter: 22mm

Length: 76mm

Terminals: AWG 20

soil moisture sensor at different depth

Soil and Water Temperature Sensor

Soil temperature sensor is used to find the temperature of the soil. Resistance of the sensor varies between approximately 920Ω and 1200Ω in the range considered useful in agriculture applications (-20 ~ 50ºC approximately), which results in too low variations of voltage at significant changes of temperature.

Soil and Water Temperature Sensor

Specification

Measurement range: -50 ~ 300ºC

Resistance (0ºC): 1000Ω

Diameter: 6mm

Length: 40mm

Cable: 2m

Trunk Diameter Dendrometer

Trunk diameter dendrometer is based on the variation of an internal resistance with the pressure that the growing of the trunk, stem, branch or fruit exerts on the sensor.

Trunk Diameter Dendrometer

Specification

Trunk/branch diameter: From 2 cm

Accuracy: ±2μm

Temperature coefficient: <0.1μm/K

Linearity: <2%

Operation temperature: -30 ~ 40ºC

Operation humidity: 0 ~ 100%RH

Cable length: 2m

Output range: 0 ~ 20kΩ

Range of the sensor: Function of the size of the tree

Trunk diameter dendrometer measurements
 Tree Diameter (cm) Measuring Range in Circumference (mm) Measuring Range in Diameter (mm) 10 31.25 9.94 40 22.99 7.31 100 16.58 5.27

Stem Diameter Dendrometer

Stem diameter dendrometer is based on the variation of an internal resistance with the pressure that the growing of the trunk, stem, branch or fruit exerts on the sensor.

Stem Diameter Dendrometer

Specification

Stem/branch diameter: 0 ~ 20cm

Range of the sensor: 11mm

Output range: 0 ~ 20kΩ

Accuracy: ±2μm

Temperature coefficient: <0.1μm/K

Operation temperature: -30 ~ 40ºC

Operation humidity: 0 ~ 100%RH

Cable length: 2m

Fruit Diameter Dendrometer

Fruit diameter dendrometer is based on the variation of an internal resistance with the pressure that the growing of the trunk, stem, branch or fruit exerts on the sensor.

Fruit Diameter Dendrometer

Specification

Fruit diameter: 0 ~ 11cm

Range of the sensor: 11mm

Output range: 0 ~ 20kΩ

Accuracy: ±2μm

Temperature coefficient: <0.1μm/K

Operation temperature: -30 ~ 40ºC

Operation humidity: 0 ~ 100%RH

Cable length: 2m

Solar radiation sensor is a sensor used in agro metrology. This sensor, specifically calibrated for the detection of solar radiation, provides at its output a voltage proportional to the intensity of the light in the visible range of the spectrum, a key parameter in photosynthesis processes. It presents a maximum output of 400mV under maximum radiation conditions and a sensitivity of 5.00μmol·m-2s-1/mV.

Specification

Sensitivity: 0.200mV / μmol·m-2s-1

Calibration factor: 5μmol·m-2s-1/mV

Non-linearity: <1% (up to 4000 μmol·m-2s-1)

Non-stability (long-term drift) : <2% per year

Spectral range: 410 ~ 655nm

Accuracy: ±5%

Repeatability: <1%

Diameter: 2.4cm

Ultraviolet radiation sensor provides at its output a voltage proportional to the intensity of the light in the ultraviolet range of the spectrum. It presents a maximum output of 26mV under maximum radiation conditions and a sensitivity of 0.2mV / μmol·m-2s-1.

Specification

Sensitivity: 0.2mV / μmol·m-2s-1

Calibration factor: 5.0μmol·m-2s-1/mV

Non-stability (Long-term drift) : <3% per year

Non-linearity: <1% (up to 300μmol·m-2s-1)

Spectral range: 250 ~ 400nm

Accuracy: ±10%

Repeatability: <1%

Diameter: 2.4cm

Height: 2.8cm

Cable length: 5m shielded, twisted-pair wire

Operation temperature: -40 to 70 ºC

Operation humidity: 0 ~ 100%RH

Weather Station

Weather Station

This weather station consists of three different sensors,

• Wind vane
• AnemometerPluviometer.

WIND WANE

Specification

Height: 8.9 cm

Length: 17.8 cm

Maximum accuracy: 22.5º

Resistance range: 688Ω ~ 120kΩ

Anemometer

The anemometer consists of a Reed switch normally open that closes for a short period of time when the arms of the anemometer complete a 180º angle, so the output is a digital signal whose frequency will be proportional to the wind speed. There will be 2 events in each complete turn. That signal can be read from the digital pin and the Value returns the wind speed value in kilometres per hour (km/h).

Anemometer

Specification

Sensitivity: 2.4km/h / turn

Wind Speed Range: 0 ~ 240km/h

Height: 7.1 cm

Arm length: 8.9 cm

Pluviometer

Pluviometer

Specification

Height: 9.05 cm

Length: 23 cm

Bucket capacity: 0.28 mm of rain

Ultrasonic Sensing for Corn Plant Canopy Characterization

Ultrasonic sensing technology was analysed as one approach for the characterization of corn plant canopy. Ultrasonic echo signals from corn plant canopies were gathered using a lab-based sensor platform. Echo signal peak features were extracted from multiple scans of plant canopies. These features included scan number, peak amplitude and time of flight. The growth stage of each plant was estimated based on the number of leaves detected. A leaf-signal interaction model was produced to predict which parts of leaf surfaces will result in echo signals detectable by the sensor.

Ultrasonic Sensing for Corn Plant Canopy Characterization

Ultrasonic Sensors on Spray Nozzles

Ultrasonic Sensors on Spray Nozzles

Ultrasonic sensors can save on pesticides by detecting tree gaps. As soon as one of these gaps is recognized, the spraying process temporarily stops. The ultrasonic sensor is well-suited for this application. Due to the extremely robust ultrasonic sensor technology and its high IP protection degree, you can use the sensors under all weather conditions without losing performance. The hardiness of these sensors makes them resistant to chemicals contained in pesticide

Ultrasonic Sensors and IR sensor for insect detection in plant

Ultrasonic insect detector that comprises of an ultrasonic sensor, an infrared sensor and a GSM module in which ultrasonic sensor will detect the sound of insects by detecting ultrasonic signals generated by the feeding event of insects in crops. After that the presence of insects will be confirmed by the heat radiated by the insect’s body through infrared sensor. Once the presence of insect is confirmed by both the sensors a message will be sent by using GSM module in which it will inform the farmer about the presence of insects after that farmer can use pesticides or insecticides according to their crops.

Ultrasonic Sensors and IR sensor for insect detection in plant

Ultrasonic Sensors and inductive sensor used in balers

Ultrasonic sensors used in balers for operating these operations.

Filling level measurement in a container inductive sensor used in balers for

Position control of flaps, shutters and casings

Counting the number of axle revolutions

Inductive sensors are responsible for indicating the position of the casing. The same inductive sensors are also used to count the revolutions of an axle and obtain information determining the size of the bales

## Conclusion

Farm mechanization is the need of time to enhance the production and productivity. In fodder production also, there is the need of appropriate technology and machinery utilization to enhance the productivity of feed and fodder and reduce the losses. In this regard, Farm Machinery and Post Harvesting Technology Division, IGFRI, Jhansi has developed and adopted several machinery and technology. During this internship, these machineries and technologies were learnt. A number of machines used in fodder production and utilization viz. laser guided land leveller, mixed cropping enabled fertilizer cum seed drill, zero till fertilizer cum seed drill, raised bed planter, reaper binder, fodder harvester, single row fodder harvester, power weeder, tractor operated boom sprayer, tractor operated movable baler, tractor operated field baler, tyre type seed pelleting machine, manually operated feed block making machine, hydraulically operated feed block making machine and thresher with urea treatment system were studied and their working principle was described. In machine designing, 3D modelling of components was done and assembling those components, machinery was made ready in 3D model.

This training has given exposure in farm machinery operation, maintenance and designing. This will be helpful in designing any new machine. Advance studies in this field will enable to design any on road or off road vehicle or field machinery.

## Acknowledgement

I whole heartedly thank to the Indian Academy of Science Benguluru, Indian National Science Academy New Delhi and The National Academy of Sciences, India Prayagraj for giving me this opportunity to do summer research fellowship in Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute, Jhansi.

I sincerely thank to my guide/my well-wisher/my caretaker Dr. Chandra Skekhar Sahay, Principle scientist, FMPHT Division, Indian Grassland and Fodder Research, Jhansi. Thank you for accepting me to work under your guidance and taking care of me throughout my training period. I thank Head, FMPHT Division Dr. PK Pathak for allowing me all the facilities in the Division.

I am thankful to Director, IGFRI and Chairman, HRD Unit IGFRI for allowing me to do summer research internship in this prestigious Institute.

I thank my college for supporting me to take this internship and my professor Mr. V.Ramji who guided me to take this opportunity and constantly supported me in all my efforts.

I sincerely thank Er. Amit Kumar Patil , Scientist, FMPHT Division, IGFRI for teaching me 3D modelling. I also thank Mr. Pratap Singh Kushwaha, office assistant, FMPHT Division, IGFRI for giving a great companion in all my works. In the end, I thank all the Technical staffs, mechanics, welders, tractor drivers and all those in workshop who helped me to complete my project successfully.

(P.NAVEEN KUMAR)

## References

Agricultural Engineering (Through Worked Examples).1971.Radhey Lal, A.C. Data. Saroj Prakashan 646, Katra, Allahabad-2.

An Introduction to Agricultural Engineering.1982. Roth F.R, Crow G.W.A, Mahoney. AVI Publications Company, INC,Westport,Connecticut, USA.

Design of Agricultural Tractor (Principles and Problems).2010.D.N.Sharma, S.Mukesh. Jain Brothers, New Delhi-5.

Mechanization in Fodder Production.2016. CS Sahay, PK Pathak, SK Singh. Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute, Jhansi-284003.

Power Hydraulics. Michael J.Pinches, John G.Ashby. Prentice Hall, New York.

Principles of Agricultural Engineering (Vol-1).1966. A.M.Michael, T.P.Ojha. Jain Brothers, New Delhi-5.

Principles of Farm Machinery.1987. R.A.Kepner, Roy Bainer, E.L.Barger. CBS Publishers & Distributors, New Delhi- 032.

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