Emergence of Zoonotic Diseases in India: A Systematic Review
Introduction: Zoonotic diseases are the diseases originating from animals wherein humans acquire infectious diseases from zoonotic reservoirs, either naturally or through zoonotic vectors. The newly emerged or existing zoonotic diseases like Kyasanur Forest Disease, Scrub typhus and Japanese Encephalitis are frequently expanding to non-endemic areas. Nipah Virus was first encountered in West Bengal (India) in 2001 and recently has been reported from Kerala in May 2018.
Method: Multiple databases like PubMed, Google Scholar, Research Gate, Embase and Web of Science were searched to collect scientific research articles on emerging and reemerging ‘zoonoses’ in India using various keywords like Emerging Zoonoses, Reemerging Zoonoses, High-priority Zoonoses, Neglected Zoonoses, Natural Zoonoses and Occupational Zoonoses in India. Articles were identified through a comprehensive search of the literature and by reviewing references from 127 review articles identified through the search process.
Result: On the basis of this review, the ‘knocking’ property of high-priority zoonoses and neglected zoonoses in India is compared through a line graph. Emphasis is placed on the increasing annual burden of zoonoses on public health in India.
Conclusion: The impacts of various factors such as Animal farming, Urbanization, Poverty, Climate change and Adaptation of pathogens on emergence of zoonoses are discussed in this paper. Public health sectors of India need to be pro-active by emphasizing on effective periodic surveillance, pre-assessment or forecasting of zoonotic diseases and capacity building.
Keywords: Emerging zoonoses, Reemerging zoonoses, High-priority zoonoses, Neglected zoonoses, Annual disease burden, Public health.