Arduino based signal acquisition and processing of arterial blood pressure waveform
Cardiac output (CO) is the product of Heart Rate (HR) and Stroke Volume (SV). Cardiac function monitoring provides an estimate of whole body perfusion oxygen delivery and understands the causes of high blood pressure. Its calculation method would be most suitable if the monitor and the peripherals used are non-invasive and user-friendly. Arterial Blood Pressure (ABP) waveform can be used to estimate the much required Cardiac Output through signal processing. The arterial waveform analysis can also be used to calculate the Stroke Volume, vascular resistance and pulse pressure variation. Most of the methods available for obtaining the ABP waveform are invasive and thus have not gained much popularity. Peripheral arterial blood pressure (ABP) may be measured reliably by non-invasive oscillometric method. A pressure transducer can be used to sense the pressure from the arm and generate an output voltage. The voltage signal can be filtered and amplified to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. The voltage signal would serve as an input to the Arduino microcontroller. The code would be written for calculating the CO and BP from the ABP waveform generated and uploaded on the Arduino board. The cardiovascular parameters would be continuously calculated, monitored and displayed on an LCD. An additional GSM Module can be added for sending the cardiovascular distress messages to the concerned doctor or medical staff so that timely medical treatment can be provided to the patient. The program code for the signal analysis can be tested with various arterial waveforms by simulating the circuit in Proteus Design Suite by Labcenter. The components and connections would be virtually made and the program would be uploaded in the Proteus environment. The waveform values will be obtained from healthy and ill patients and the output will be analysed for checking the efficiency and improving the program code.