Investigation of Bisphenol A induced oxidative stress on cells using micro Raman spectroscopy
An unwanted guest! Bisphenol A (BPA, 2, 2-bis (4-hydroxyphenyl) propane) is a monomer of polycarbonate plastics and a constituent of epoxy and polystyrene resins. It is widely used in the manufacture of many consumer goods like polycarbonate water bottles, baby bottles, food containers, home appliances, thermal papers used in billing, the inner lining of food cans etc. It is an endocrine disrupter, which mimics the functions of estrogen hormone, and promotes carcinogenic activity, thereby causing abnormal bodily reactions and adverse health outcomes. High blood level of BPA has been linked with various diseases such as recurrent miscarriages, abnormal karyotypes, polycystic ovary syndrome, reproductional dysfunction, etc. Due to its widespread utility, we get exposed to this chemical very often in our daily life. Factors such as elevated temperatures (due to heating), detergent cleaning and mechanical cleaning can cause Bisphenol A to leach out and migrate into the food and beverages preserved inside these containers.
Optical tweezers are gaining wide attention from the biomedical scientific community due to its capability of manipulating individual cells with utmost precision. Researchers have already applied optical tweezers in combination with Raman spectroscopy to gather vital information regarding the biochemical alterations occurring in a single biological cell. Although extensive research has been carried out on exploring the stress effect induced by external factors such as AgNO3, ethanol, glucose etc. on RBCs using Raman Tweezers, to the best of our knowledge, the effect of Bisphenol A on single RBC remain under-explored.
The present work is focused on utilizing spectroscopic techniques for the detection of Bisphenol A from thermal paper receipts and drinking water bottles. Furthermore, efforts will be made to investigate the effect of Bisphenol A on a single trapped RBC using Raman Tweezers, from which information about the oxidative stress in the RBC can be obtained. There are already reports about BPA inducing oxidative stress on RBCs. It is expected that this study will give a cursory idea about the harmful outcomes of BPA exposure.
Keywords: Micro-Raman spectroscopy, Raman Tweezers, Red Blood Cells, Bisphenol A, Thermal papers.